21

This one is a tough question. Phonetic Difference Is there something I'm missing? Й is a full-featured consonant, while Ь is a phonological aspect that affects the preceding consonant. Practically, the difference is very subtle and it affects only the phonetic duration. Furthermore, if the difference is subtle, could I still be understood ...


14

That with and the like at the end of the sentence is very typical of English (and some other Germanic languages), but it is absolutely un-Slavic in general and un-Ukrainian in particular. That is called "hanging prepositions", Ukrainian does not allow that and it always moves those prepositions into the middle of the sentence. If we take your example, ...


12

TL/DR Maybe the most important rule to know: em-dash is used if Predicate is a Noun/Nominative. The rest of cases are really rare. The verb "to be" has several essentially different meanings: be in existence: є країна, де…, there is a country where… be an identity (object x belongs to a class X): яблуко є фрукт or яблуко є фруктом¹, apple is a fruit be (...


11

No, not always. Що may have several functions: A demonstrating pronoun (cf. English what) Що ти читав учора? — "What did you read yesterday?" Since we have free word order, the following sentence is equally valid: Учора ти що читав? — literally, "yesterday you what read?" This requires no comma. A subordinating conjunction that join a dependent ...


10

It is very important to distinguish between the concepts of "native language" and "language, one prefers to speak in everyday life". The other answer to the stated question, used native language percentage as the source of their claims - that's deceiving, since many people who consider a language their monther tongue don't necessarily use it in everyday life ...


10

Letter Я can actually represent one or two sounds depending on its position in word and the letter it follows. Я should be pronounced as /йа/ in the following cases: Я is the first letter: яблуко — /йаблуко/; Я follows vowel sound: маяк - /майак/, змія — /зм’ійа/; Я is preceeded by apostrophe or soft sign (Ь): плем'я — /племйа/, Фольяр — /фол'йар/, альянс —...


9

As @Sasha mentioned in their comment, there's no word that is used only when addressing. Likewise in English, historically, "sir" used to mean, "owner, master, landlord". However, you no longer say, "this sir did X". The same applies to Ukrainian. Also, one should keep in mind that the perception of bourgeoisie was spoiled during the centuries of effective ...


9

To cut a long story short: yes, it is obligatory when you address someone. It is hard to prove that some case is as normal as any other, but in "Правопис" you'll find no notes about vocative case being optional. As for why some people don't use it: there are a lot of native Russian-speakers in Ukraine and, unfortunately, not all of them learn Ukrainian ...


9

Addressing a cashier in a shop seems to be somewhere between the official communication and the friends' talk. So your goal is somewhere between the "formal" addressing (long but most accurate) and "rapid speak" (short but rude/sharp sometimes). В українській мові найбільш уживаними, стилістично нейтральними висловами подяки є: дякую і спасибі, які можуть ...


9

Good job! Your pronunciation is far, far better than anyone else's known to me. A few words have unusual stress, but keep in mind that every live language has dialects, and stress patterns and prosody vary alot between those. What you think a mistake can be perceived a dialect. Keep moving and start communicating with native language speakers. Once you do ...


9

The answer is, we don't know, we can only try guessing. In every language, colloquial communication, especially the one that uses obscene lexic and swear words, undergo a blooming word formation. Think for yourself how many years ago "what's up" has emerged, then transforming into "whazzup" and then into "sup". The same phenomenon occurs in Ukrainian. The ...


8

According to the last census (2001, data for the Kyiv city (in Ukrainian only), data for the Kyiv region (in English)) you have roughly 70% chance to be answered in Ukrainian, which is 2 out every 3 persons you talk to. You can always maximize the probability of talking to a Ukrainian-speaking person by going to some cultural places and events, like ...


8

Yes, there is a casual way to tell time in Ukrainian. General pattern Native speakers simply omit words "година" and "хвилина". In most cases you'll be fine, if you stick to this pattern. Based on your example for 9:45, you could just say "дев'ята сорок п'ять". Please mind the feminine gender of the word "дев'ята", as it is related to a feminine-gender ...


8

It depends on the context. If you want to stress it that you saw this specific house, you might use demonstrative pronouns like "цей" ("this") or "той" ("that"). In this case, you would say: Я бачив цей / той дім. — I saw this / that house. However, it is true that we don't use definite and indefinite articles (at least not that I have heard of.) So, you ...


8

First off, a small correction: it has nothing to do with the orthography (I have retagged the question); the sounds alternate, and the written letters only follow the pronunciation. The Consonant Alternation is a common phenomenon in Slavonic languages. Particularly, Ukrainian has numerous cases of Alternation. Namely, /t/ ←→ /t͡ʃ/ alternation has been ...


7

Your question is in the list of candidates for closing with reason "primarily opinion-based". I agree that it really is a such; please try rephrasing it. Still, I'll try to answer this question as is, just in order to help. The first thing that "strikes the eye" when seeing your page is: the cases are in "wrong" order. Typical order used in schools when ...


7

Затверджені правила скорочень українських імен мені невідомі. Особливо щодо скорочень латиницею, адже це досить нова тенденція. Спроби згадати варіації імен на Полтавщині наштовхнули на думку, що українці не схильні до скорочування імен. Навпаки, зменшено-пестливі форми утворюються за допомогою відповідних суфіксів. Скорочення дуже схожі на копіювання ...


6

Допомагати is an imperfective verb (aspect), and допомогти is a perfective verb (aspect). These are typical variations of verbs in Slavic languages, more in English here. Imperfective verbs convey: actions and states in progress, just ongoing states and actions, with significant course (in opinion of the speaker); actions that serve as a background for ...


6

Well, first thing that I want to say: Ь does not have a sound (but instead "softens" the previous consonant) is simply wrong from international point of view. It looks like true from point of view of Ukrainian (and Russian, and some other) linguistics — because every hearing is individual, different humans have different perception of sound shades and ...


6

The edited question seems to be more clear, so let me suggest another translation: серія ігор The literal one-to-one translation does not work every time, especially if it is about a pair of distant languages. In English phrase, "gaming series", the "gaming" is an Adjective, but its role is much more than describing a noun "series". Compare: what kind of ...


6

There's another case when the comma before "що" is not needed: when you're using conjunction "так що". It means "so". Compare theese two examples: Пішов дощ, так що ми не могли залишатись на вулиці. It started to rain, so we could not stay outdoors. Пішов дощ так, що ми не могли залишатись на вулиці. "Так" was used here, which means "in that way", but the ...


6

There's two possible ways to address not a strange older person in Ukrainian: By saying "пані / пан [name]" (name in a vocative case) (most of the cases of non-formal communication). Example: - Пані Ірино, як просувається ваша нова стаття? By saying " [name] [patronym]2 " in a vocative case (some (more and more rare) cases for people who are more older ...


5

What the book seems to be saying, is that Я can mean different pronunciations - softening the preceding consonant, plus A, or a ja. It does not imply that Ь and Й are identical or similar. As an example, consider that since the Ь can occur at the end of the word, or between consonants, you simply cannot pronounce it the same as Й. As in: пень cannot be ...


5

An equivalent for I no speak the English very good. could be Моя не говорити український дуже добре. Compare it with a correct version: Я не дуже добре говорю українською [по-українськи]. The errors: 1) usage of моя (mine) instead of я (I). 2) usage of infinitive form of говорити (to speak) instead of Present tense form говорю (speak). 3) ...


5

What's this It seems that this is a closed compound word, which appears to be a neologism, authors of this show came up on the fly. This kind of words(ukr. - голофрастичне утворення/конструкція) is created by lexicalization of syntactic terms. Notes: Source: "СЛОВОТВІРНІ ОСОБЛИВОСТІ НЕОЛОГІЗМІВ У СУЧАСНІЙ ПОСТМОДЕРНІСТСЬКІЙ ПРОЗІ") It is worth noting that ...


4

Well, IMHO meanings of питати and пытать can be considered as relatively close. Although in most Slavic languages питати and similar words really mean something like “to ask”, but there are nuances: Russian — to torture, (colloquial) to try / to attempt / to check, (colloquial dated) to ask / to inquire / to question (see in Wiktionary). Slovak, Moravian, ...


4

As long as the Vocative case is stipulated by Ukrainian Orthography (Український правопис), it is obligatory. When I went to school, vocative was taught as vocative "form" and not the vocative "case". To the best of my awareness vocative was confirmed by Ukrainian Orthography (Український правопис) only in early nineties (in 1993 if I remember correctly). ...


4

In the dialect of the Pokuttya region, the present-day Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, the present tense forms of "бути" were used together with participles in -в, -ла, -ло, -ли to form the past tense in the same way as in English you take have + past participle to form present perfect. Also, they were used to mean the present tense ("am, is, are"). The point was, ...


4

All options are good and are used. I prefer to say Щиро дякую because it is short and sounds very natural in Ukrainian. I personally dislike спасибі because it's very close to Russian спасибо so it can confuse the partner especially when I have a dialog with a native Russian-speaking person. As it's mentioned in the comment, спасибі is not a ...


4

The main difference between the endings -ий and -ій is not the vowel, but the quality of the consonant before those endings. Before -ий the consonant is not palatalized: великий [vɛ'lɪkɪj], малий [ma'lɪj], чорний ['tʂ͡ɔrnɪj] Before -ій the consonant is palatalized, it is always [nʲ]: синій ['sɪnʲij], майбутній [maj'butʲnʲij]


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