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My books have said that Ukrainian stress is irregular. The same could be said of English, but there are still some patterns. For example: Stress always falls on the first syllable of words ending in "-tion". Are there any such patterns in Ukrainian?

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Yes, there are several notable patterns. Caveat, quite often, they have their own exceptions, so one should not solely rely on these patterns, unless being certain about stressing a specific word.

Nouns

  • Declined nouns often keep stress on stem (not on case endings):
    дру́гом, дру́гові, повідо́мленню

  • Nouns created with the suffixes usually keep suffix unstressed:
    револю́ція (here is -tion), пози́ція, іннова́ція

  • Plural nouns, ending with — stress falls on the last syllable (also declined):
    огірки́, огіркі́в, книжки́, книжо́к
    but: іме́нники, сму́жки

  • Multi-stem nouns — stress falls on the second stem:
    довготрива́лий, просторі́чний

  • Gerund-like nouns ending with -ання — stress falls on the suffix:
    коха́ння, єдна́ння, чита́ння
    but: бі́гання

  • Nouns/Adjectives/Verbs with не- prefix do not get stress on this prefix:
    незнайо́мець, незда́тність, недоста́тній
    but: не́хтувати

Adjectives

  • Two-syllable adjectives often get stress on last syllable:
    міцни́й, дурни́й
    but: жи́рний
  • Diminutive suffix -еньк- often gets stressed:
    солоде́нький

Verbs

  • Suffixes of Plural 1st and 2nd Person -емо, -имо, -ете, -ите get stress on the very last syllable:
    п'ємо́, кричите́
    but: бу́дете, хо́дите, зали́шимо
  • Suffixes of imperative mood -імо gets stress:
    ході́мо, залиші́мо

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