This question comes from a wrong assumption that these consonants are similar. The seemingly similar Cyrillic letters
Ґ are the ones to blame.
The reality is quite different.
First off, as a general rule, the spoken language is always the key, and the writing only "encodes" the real, actual sounds of each particular language. It is a good idea to keep in mind that the writing can spoil the entire picture. Take the vowel
о is almost always different to the Russian counterpart, despite the fact is "encoded" with the same symbol.
Leave alone the fact that even within the same language it can be tricky: there are three different vowels in Russian word молоко
[mə lɐ 'kɔ] (or even five if you consider the dialectal
[mə ɫʌ 'ko]), for example — all five "encoded" with
Phonemes in question
Returning back to
Г is "voiced glottal fricative",
Ґ is "voiced velar stop" (just like the Russian
Г is "voiced velar fricative"
So they belong to three different classes, having very few in similar.
This image shows (pretty schematic) the location of
(image courtesy of The Marine English Forum)
Similar Phonemes in Slavic Languages
This also implies the answer to te question,
Does this list describe all types of "Г"-sounds in Eastern Slavic languages?
The answer is, there is no such thing as "Г"-sounds. One may or may not consider various consonants a "Г"-sound or not, depending on many factors. Take the following examples:
- Full glottal stop
ʔ. If you speak Russian, this is the phoneme in word
не-а — why not?, it is also glottal;
- Voiceless velar fricative
x (as in Ukrainian хліб) — why not?, it differs from Belarusian
Г only by being voiceless.
See, if we replace the term of "Г"-sounds with something more formal (e.g., "glottal" or "fricative"), we automatically get the full list of languages having this phoneme, regardless of how they are written.
Yet another consideration is for mapping phones to phonemes. Each phoneme may be pronounced differently by different speakers (in other words, they produce different phones), but a listener would map these phones to the same phoneme to decipher the word.