I am aware that Ukrainian has no word for "go" that does not imply a form of transit.
So what verb would be substituted for "go" in the translation of:
How did you go there?
You are right, Ukrainian specifies whether you go on foot, іти, or on/in a kind of transport, їхати. Still, Ukrainian does have a verb which generalizes over іти and їхати, and that is дістатися, "to get", and that is the word you use if you are not sure how far the place is. That is why:
"How did you go there?" is "Як ви туди дісталися?"